When and how to prune fruit trees
When and how to prune fruit trees it is an important question for fruit gardening . Pruning and training are one of the important intercultural operation for fruit plant to obtain maximum production. They have string effect on the proper growth of fruit plants. We can control the function and direction of plant growth by them.
- 1 Rules of pruning
- 2 When and how to prune fruit trees
- 2.1 Benefits of pruning
Rules of pruning
- We should know the bearing habit of the plant.
- Stage of growth in juvenile tree light pruning is appropriate of the big tree needs pruning
- Time and season of pruning
- in case of the evergreen, pruning should be done After harvesting of fruit.
- In case of deciduous tree pruning should be done after one or two of falling leaves.
- If pruning time is optimum but the weather is not good then pruning should not be done.
- Using sharp tools, equipment for pruning.
- When cutting a big branch first have to cut from below, have to maintain the angle of 45 degrees and have to cut first from the bushy area.
When and how to prune fruit trees
There are some points we should know and consider before pruning which are as follows-
1. Nature of plant
All plants are not equal in their growth habit and bearing habit and also the ability of plants to tolerate pruning shock. Some plants give good results in response to light pruning and some plants to medium pruning and there are some heavy pruning.
2. Time or season
Time is very important. If you prune the plant, it will affect greatly its growth. An evergreen plant has to prune then after harvesting of fruits. In the case of the deciduous plant have to prune after one or two months of leaves fall. For unfavorable weather conditions we have to wait for pruning.
Usually we have to sharp equipment for pruning. Otherwise, cambium layers may be affected, the next growth and productivity will be hampered.
4. Cutting off branches
In case of big branches, below the surface of the branch to cut. Otherwise, branches may be split out for further growth of branch we have to maintain 45 degrees angle and have to cut first from the bushy area.
5. Plant parts to be pruned
If the plant is very dense, we have to cut some of the branches of the plant. During the pruning we have to remove all diseases, insects, infected, drying, and morbid branches. If any parasitic plants, they are also to be removed with the bark or branches.
Fig: Three cut pruning method
Benefits of pruning
There are lots of benefits of pruning for fruit plants which are as follows-
Effect on vegetative growth
- Remove any parts of the plant or pruning increases the vegetative growth of the plant.
- Pruning increases vegetative growth by decreasing carbohydrates. Because carbohydrate is needed for preparing cell wall and fruiting.
- Evergreen trees need not more pruning, but deciduous trees need more pruning.
- It reduces the exhaustiveness of the fruit plant.
Effect of root pruning
- Root pruning is performed in different gourd plant and jackfruit.
- Hot water is given at bottle gourd because of disease.
Effect on flowering
- When vegetative growth reaches a certain stage then flowers come to the tree.
- Day length, temperature, carbon, and nitrogen ratio, carbohydrate are effect on flowering.
- The new leaf produces the GA3 hormone which affects flowering.
- If some parts like leaves, buds is removed with carbohydrates then the flower will come.
- Heavy pruning is not allowed for old branches.
- It brings the hormonal balance of the tree.
Effect on yield
- If heavy pruning is done, then it will be harmful to the tree. To enhance the pollination, to get the high nutrient and water then the tree becomes healthy and bearing.
Effect on quality
- When pruning is done in a tree then it gets the air, the light at a higher quality and for this reason, the fruit becomes sweet because carbohydrates converted into sugar in the presence of light.
Effect on productivity
- Pruning increases the edible portion of the fruit. It is profitable on account of economic point of view.
Effect on quality of fruit
- Color, scent, taste, size, etc. is developed by pruning. Air, light and nutrients supply reach at optimum after pruning. So that fruit quality will become best. For example; To increase the size of the papaya through thinning. To increase the color of the apple through leaf and branch pruning.