Landscape gardening ideas, importance, principles, styles, and factors: Landscape gardening is a branch of horticulture that deals with plant decorations’ aesthetic values. Ornamental plants are being used for this purpose. Various plants like flowering ornamentals or only leafy ornamentals are used in this procedure of the decoration.
Landscape gardening is a prevalent practice throughout the world. The countries with a strong economy keep their emphasis on landscape gardening, and they choose plants as decorative properties in the first place. They love to decorate their roadsides, balconies of a building, lawn, terrace surrounding a pond, fountain, and anything that can be decorated; they make that happen.
What is landscape gardening?
If we go for a definition of landscape gardening, we can say that landscape gardening is an art in which the land and its elements r decorated with natural things like plants, bird nests, water, etc. The elements are arranged in such a way that the place becomes so beautiful. Mostly landscape hardening is seen in the roadsides, parks, office lawns, fancy buildings, buildings, terraces, balconies, flyovers, foot overbridges, etc. The area decorated will become so charming and mesmerizing that it get the values of star marking.
Ideas for landscaping
Man has invented the idea of landscape gardening by getting influenced by nature. Man has observed nature year after year. Nature is a beautiful queen. People are influenced by endearing nature and always want to bring nature by their side. Large trees with big canopy or small trees with big canopy, thin trunk, and spread canopy, big trunk spread canopy or flower plants with various colors and combinations. You can use herbaceous or tree type or maybe shrubs flowers of all categories for landscape designing. Ornamental trees, shrubs are mostly available species for landscape designing. Sometimes owners may use fruit trees to make a place more lavishing and exciting for youngsters.
Naturally occurring elements for landscaping
In nature, if we see our surroundings, we can observe that nature is so beautiful. And the causes of its beauty are the elements it has. In nature, there are hills, mountains, snow, sand, forest, fountains, plains, lakes, swamps, greenery, etc. All these elements enhance the beauty of nature by maintaining a proper arrangement in them. There is harmony among these elements. The beauty itself comes out from them.
Plants are the first and foremost element of nature. So for the conservation of natural planting is very important, various social organizations and multinational organizations are emphasizing afforestation.
Green is also perfect for eyesight. Watching greenery around makes our eyes more potential in visualizing our surroundings. Of course, there must be a proper balance among the natural elements. For example, there are mountains where the sea is around, again there are deep forests where the sea is around.
Small trees are in the front of big trees so that the shade of those big trees does not hamper the small trees in getting the proper amount of sunlight. If we study more, we will find them in a more interesting pattern.
Importance of landscape gardening
The importance of landscape gardening is given below.
Designing a building area
A building area doesn’t have so much space for decorating with natural elements so that the beauty of the building increase. But if we ask a designer whether it is possible to decorate it or not. He or she will say yes, it is possible to decorate the building.
You can decorate each floor’s balcony space with small potted plants or by making the use of hanging plants. Each of the balconies is decorated similarly; the building will look so charming from the outside.
You can decorate the staircase with small plants; it will be beautiful to look at. Or if there is a lawn even smaller that can be decorated with various kinds of grass. Soft grasses should be used if children play on them. You can apply these various decorative ideas to decorate a building area.
Designing a residential area
A residential area is more likely to be decorated by landscape designing. A residential area is a classy area. Owners of the residential areas are very interested in decorating the area with beautiful natural phenomena. The area becomes very charming while it is decorated in such a way.
Various heights, different canopy sizes, and different types of flower gardens are made for the decoration of a residential area. Other things like fountains or a small pond are included. Sometimes an aquarium is made for decorating a residential area. But plants are mostly used for decoration.
Designing a water source
Pond sides, lakesides are also included in the decorative area of landscape designing. For designing and making a nice appearance, the water source can be round in shape or rectangle, or sometimes it can be spiral. The oval shape is trendy for swimming pool designing. Other shapes like zig-zag pattern are also popular in large area lake design.
The edges of the water sources are designed with various plants and trees. If there is an open space in the surroundings, the water space designers prefer to decorate the edges with small-sized plants. The visitor can visit the beauty of the lake or pond without any struggle. On the other hand, large trees are planted at a small distance from the water source’s edge point. The roots of trees are strong enough to break down the edge’s mud and create a disaster for the whole decoration.
Designing a stadium
A stadium is a place where only a large field area is detected. Large trees are not allowed. But growing grass is also a part of landscape designing. Making a spontaneous growth of grass and their sizing in a frequent period is very important. Otherwise, the players can not run comfortably and play at their best. Also, the choice of grass is essential for the stadium field. Mostly Bermuda grass is preferable for the field. The field site choice is another important factor in designing.
Roads are also decorated under landscape designing. Besides the roads, big shaded trees are planted. It is mainly seen on the highway roads. On both sides of the highway, big trunk trees are planted. It creates a vast canopy, and the roads are shaded with them.
In some residential areas on both sides of the road, golden shower or peacock tree type beautiful trees are planted. When yellow or red-colored flowers bloom, respectively, the roads look stunning in themselves. People love to walk or ride on this type of beautiful roadway.
Eventually, the roads divider decorate with ornamental plants (mostly herbs and shrubs). Also, grass type plants use to decorate the roads divider. Traffic lights, sometimes some benches for sitting and resting especially for those who are old or ill are introduced to roadsides. These elements then also work as landscape designing elements.
Designing foot over bridges and flyovers
In the developed countries for crossing the roads, there are foot over bridges on the roads. Also for reducing traffic jams flyovers are made on the roads. These infrastructures are also designed to make them beautiful when looking at them.
Foot over bridges: Foot over bridges may contain structures like holding some plant materials. In the whipping type, plants can be cultivated. Whipping plants actually are hanging type plants. Those grow and be like hanging from the container in the air. It looks so beautiful to look at. Also, shrub type flower plants are used to decorate the foot over bridges.
Flyover: In the case of the flyovers mostly aerial plants are chosen. Plants that can survive in the higher atmosphere are suitable for flyover decoration. It is a very good practice in France, Japan, China, Dubai, etc. countries.
It seems to be very costly. But the government of a country should look forward to landscape designing. For making the infrastructure of a country more attractive. A country with a beautiful visual will be sure to have a more strong economy. People will be glad to visit such countries. So landscape designing contributes to the national economy of a country.
Principles of landscape gardening
Every work has its own principle for occurring. Landscape gardening is not different. It also has some principles for being processed. For example:
1.Landscape design is ideal. For a perfect and identical landscape designing, it should be thought like a painting. In a painting, the thought of a painter is fully visible. It can express exactly what a painter wants. Just like that landscape should be planned and conducted. It should be clear and expressive to the viewers.
2. Landscape gardening or designing is done because of beauty purposes. So the design of the garden should be that perfect. But landscape gardening is also demanded to be usable. It should not disturb the natural workflow of life. So the beauty and utility must be balanced in this.
3. The desired decorative area should be thought of in a small section. It is not a good idea to make one plan for the whole area. It is better to divide the whole area into small sections and think about every section. Every section should be introduced with a plan. And in the end, all the plans will combine and come out as one result. The ideas for each section should be relative to each other. One will not hamper the execution of others.
4. The biggest weapon of beauty is simplicity. It is very important to find the best in simple things. So in landscape designing simplicity is a must. The complication may be beautiful but most of the time they do not bear the comfort. Making it simple is essential.
5. Simplicity demands open space. Landscape designing has a very popular and easy feature that is keeping open space. Open space is so beautiful and sober. In the busy, boring, and polluted life people crave open space.
6. In the case of building decoration, the garden shouldn’t be in so much distance from the building. It is better to make the garden near to the building. Because the view from the balcony of the building must be attractive. The garden is made in a distant place from the building the beauty o it can not be observed from the building.
7. Uses of so many plants in one place are not wise. In landscape gardening crowd of plants is a must to be avoided. An overcrowded plant population is not good to look at. Also, it increases disease infestation and environmental pollution. Space between the plants is needed for ensuring a better microclimate for plants also human beings.
These are some principles of landscape designing. If these are avoided and not maintained a good result will not be obtained. So for long-lasting beauty and utility effect principles are to be maintained.
Factors of Landscape gardening
Landscape gardening is affected by some factors. These factors are also needed to be kept in mind to get a beautiful configuration.
Choice of owner
An area that is to be designed may have a choice. The owner may have some preference in designing the space with natural crafts. So the decoration of a place depends much on the choice of the owner. The owner may have a choice of small plants for decoration. Or he or she may demand some large trees in the place border remaining the middle space open. Or choice may be of having a tiny table in some corner of the place. The owner may have some flower plant preference. So the decoration actually depends mostly on the owner’s taste.
The decorative location has some criteria for designing the site if not favorable for some plants then those plants can not be cultivated there. In some cases, it is seen that plants of choice are not available. Or may not be suitable for that climate. Depending on the site direction, sunlight availability, rainfall, humidity, temperature choice of designing elements differ. If there is a scarcity of water xerophytic plants are chosen, if rainfall is abundant then water-loving plants are chosen, if the soil of that place is salinized then saline tolerant plants are chosen. On the basis of the site performance of the plant is changed. So location is an important factor for landscape garden planning.
In landscape gardening standing in the garden outside view is also a part of it. Outside of the garden or in a distance of the garden there may be hills mountains or maybe fountains or maybe playground for children or maybe another garden or maybe an orchard. All these ideas create beautiful views or scenery both outside and inside of the garden. In a bird-eye view, a stunning landscape is visible. So ideas of beautification should be enhanced for each point. If the total view is not complete then the landscape won’t have a better look.
A very important factor that must be brought into consideration during design planning. Climate does not support all kinds of ideas of landscape gardening. Due to this, one should think about what type of natural element will be suitable for the existing climatic condition. Otherwise, landscape designs will fail.
Ideas coming from inherent
People may consider the ideas of their ancestors for designing. Some may have a history of using flower and fragrant plants for the decoration of their land or residence. Some may have an inherent idea of planting vegetables in the near land of house or fruit trees beside the house. In an arranged and maintained way that it looks beautiful. So some particular designs may be heritage to some people.
Styles of landscape gardening
There are mainly three styles of landscape gardening. Those are:
The formal style of landscape gardening
In formal style, the plants are arranged and organized. Everything is scaled. Large plants are planted in the border in the same line and same proportion. Then medium plants are planted in the same proportion and same size and shape. Again the small plants follow the same rule.
All the plants are in symmetrical order—nothing more, nothing less. Everything in the garden is tiptop. Even the length of the similar plants is kept at the same level. This garden looks perfect and accurate. Also very beautiful and charming.
This type of gardens is seen in the administrative areas. Those are very formal in appearance. Also good looking. Here topiary is made sometimes. The topiary is a landscape idea of making various shapes by using plants. It is Japanese art. But very nice and authentic in look. But it can not be made with all types of plants. Some climbing species are recommended for this.
The informal style of landscape gardening
In this style, plants and other things are grown and created in such a way that it looks natural. It gives a feel of nature surrounding us. Trees are allowed to grow in an inaccurate order, like as in forests. Ponds and lakes are designed in irregular shapes like in nature. Sometimes mountains and valleys are made artificially around the garden, so it looks just like nature in its way. Fountains are made artificially, and it costs a little high than the other styles. Bird nests accompany trees, and it is done in-household areas especially. Decoration of parks, houses, or large campus is done in this way.
Freestyle of landscape gardening
It is a mixture of formal and informal styles. Here plants are allowed to grow in their way like the informal style. Also, frequent time plants are trimmed and pruned for proper shape and size like the formal style. And an elegant look. So it is a mixture of the above two styles. In various places in the world, it is seen, for example, in India.
Artistic requirements for landscape gardening
Landscape gardening is an art. And like every artistry landscape gardening also has some requirements. For example:
Rhythm of object
The object’s use in an equal order or the repeated coming of an item/object after equal distance is called rhythm. It is crucial for an even beauty of a landscape.
If proper repetition is not maintained, it will look disturbing to eyesight; for example, it will not look lovely if a small tree is included in a line of big tall trees. It will be confusing to the viewers and may be irritating. Will not charm our mind. So every object should follow an accurate rhythm in the garden.
Balancing of elements
You should balance the elements used in landscape designing. There should be a balance between the large tree elements and small plants. If there are many large trees but very few small ones, it won’t have a proper design balance.
Balance in the texture, density, shape, size, colour, and distance of the elements need a marvellous landscape. It won’t look attractive to the viewers if not so. It should be like that it seems perfect at first sight. Or it may create boredom.
Importance, or focus
In the design, there may be a particular focused thing. The planner may design the area in such a way that one thing is on focus. For example, there is a building or lake or fountain or monument that should be kept on the main point among all the beauty.
Viewers will come to see that focused thing. Keeping it in the main emphasis, the plants’ design should be in such a way that the emphasized thing looks more beautiful. That is the real magic of landscape designing. It shouldn’t be in a way that the main thing gets faded due to the other designs.
The contrast of the element
One should have the proper idea of choosing things contrasting with each other. Contrast means the matching of two things in such a way that both look good with each other. For example, big sized things with comparatively sized things. Or colour o the flowers in an arrangement that looks attractive in the desired place and distance.
Colours must be contrasting. Like if the background is white, white-coloured flowers will not look good at that place. Maybe red or pink or yellow will look better. So proper contrast is essential.
There should be a proportion between the elements. For example, after three medium plants, one semi-large tree is planted. So after every three medium plants, one semi-large plant is needed to take care of the proportionality. Otherwise, it will be cracked in appearance. Also irritating.
Another important requirement. There must be a proper harmony between the landscape elements. We should arrange the placement of the plants, buildings, fountains, hills, mountains, ponds, lakes, valleys, etc. in such a way that they wonts create a haphazard and unorganized look. Everything must be in the right place and the proper order to make a complete design that will refresh the viewer’s mind.
Landscape designing is a popular art in the world nowadays. It makes a country look so beautiful even in a busy city life. It increases visitors to a country that enhance the national economy. Also, it is so beneficial for human health and mind. Beautiful things are always pleasant to the eyes and minds. It generates peace.