How to grow marigolds (A complete guideline)
How to grow marigolds: Marigold is a very popular and widely used flower. Usually, it is a winter flower, but it can be cultivated in summer and rainy seasons. Marigold flowers can be seen in different varieties and colors. However, not only to beautify a garden but also extensively used in various festivals, pujas, and home furnishings have given the flower a different dimension.
- 1 How to grow marigolds
Properties and uses of marigold
The juice of marigold’s leaves is very effective in wounds and injuries. The juice of the leaves is quite effective as a fungicide in addition to ear ripening diseases. Marigold extract regulates tumor growth. Marigold extract enhances immunity against cancer. Applying dry powder or unneeded parts of marigold to the soil can protect against the infestation of deadly diseases like nematodes. Marigold flowers are used to make a variety of oils and perfumes.
Varieties of marigold
Although there are many species of marigold, varieties can be divided into two main types.
- African marigold-Inca, Guinea Gold, Yellow Supreme, Goldsmith, Man in the Moon, Cracker Jack, Climax, Dubloon, Golden Age, Spun Gold, Pusa Narangi, Pusa Besanti, etc.
- French marigold-marietta, Harmony, Legion of Honor, Red Brocade, Rusty Red, Butter Scotch, Valencia, Sussana, etc.
Besides the above verities, marigold also has many different varieties like White marigold, Jumbo marigold, Blood or Chinese marigold, Golden Gem, Lulu, Pumila, Ursula, etc.
Growth and flower production
The growth and flowering of marigold depend mainly on the length and temperature of the day. Adequate soil moistures and nutrients are also required for the growth and flowering of the plant. African marigold grows better in the long day with the lower the temperature (12 to 21oC).
How to grow marigolds
Now we’ll know about the complete guideline of growing marigold. Find your planting zone and see instructions for this process below.
Soil and Climate
Clay loam soil is more suitable for marigold cultivation. But it can be cultivated in any type of soil if you take sufficient care. Fertile acidic (pH 6.0 to 7.5) soil that does not accumulate water is good for marigold cultivation.
African marigold needs adequate fertilizer for cultivation but French marigold can grow low fertile soils. Necessary care should be taken during the selection and preparation of land to ensure that water does not accumulate in the soil and availability of adequate sunlight. Marigold cultivation requires mild weather.
Propagation of marigold
Propagation of marigold can be done by seed or cutting. Marigold usually propagated by seeds. Because the plants grow from seeds are healthier, taller, and more productive, so they. However, it is easier and better to propagate the marigold by the cutting method in order to maintain the characteristics of the variety.
How to grow marigold seedlings?
Seedling production of marigold: Generally there are two ways of production of marigold seedlings:
By seed: The soil of the seedbed should be well cultivated in order to produce seedlings from seed. The seedbed should be watered regularly. However, care should be taken so that water does not accumulate in the seedbed. To keep the seedlings remain strong and not be too tall the apex is cut off when the seedlings are 1.5 inches to 2 inches long. The seedlings can be planted in the mainland at the age of one month.
By cutting: If you want to produce seedlings from cuttings you should select a strong and healthy plant after flowering and cut 4 to 5 inch long stalks from them. Then the cuttings should be planted in a shady place with a mixture of sand and soil to a depth of 1 to 1.5 inches and regular watering. This will facilitate to grow the roots very quickly. Later the plants should be planted in tubs or in the mainland.
How to plant marigold?
Seedling planting: Seedlings obtained from cuttings or seeds should be planted in the mainland or in tubs at the end of monsoon. Strong seedlings with 3 to 4 leaves are good for planting. Seedlings should be planted in the tub or mainland in the afternoon when the sun’s heat goes down. The distance from row to row will be 2 inches and the distance from seedling to seedling will be 6 inches. Before planting the seedlings, take two teaspoons of Diathene-M45 mixed with water in a container and soak the seedlings in that water and pick them up after 5 to 6 minutes.
Following fertilizers should be applied per acre of land (1 ha = 2.47 acre)
- Well decomposed cow dung 15 ton to 20 ton
- Urea 100 kg
- TSP 80 kg
- MOP 60 kg
- Gypsum 40 kg
- Zinc 3 kg
Note: 60 kg urea fertilizer should be applied per acre at 30 to 45 days after planting.
Note: 1 hectare equals 10,000 square meters. Suppose, if you want to cultivate marigold in a one-meter small garden then what will be the amount of fertilizer? Answer: For one meter of land the amount well-decomposed cow dung should be divided by 10,000. And in the case of rest fertilizers will be the same.
How to care for marigold?
There is no need to do anything for 7 to 10 days after planting.
Weeding: Weeding should be done after planting the seedlings in the field or in the seedbed when weeds are more prevalent.
Hoeing: The marigold field should be hoeing with a hoe after weeding.
Irrigation: After hoeing the land should be irrigated with the application of DMP fertilizer at 60 kg per acre only in rows. The seedlings that will die after irrigation should be replanted by bringing seedlings from other places like the seedbed. Extra soil should be given at the base of the plant when the seedlings grow. Marigold requires relatively less irrigation. The color of the flowers will be better if you irrigate just after flowering.
Irrigation should be done early in the morning or before evening. Irrigation in the hot sun causes damaging seedlings.
How to get big flower/cutting the top of the plant: You have to cut the top of the plant by “stopping method” if you want to get more flowers. It facilitates more stalks and flowers. You have to keep one or two buds and cut down the rest if you want a big flower.
Supporting the plant: If the flower is too big, you have to put poles on the plant.
Spraying of Dithane M-45 and Roveral in recommended doses during the seedling stage will reduce the incidence of diseases and insects. For quick growth of the plant, Thiovit can be sprayed by mixing 2 teaspoons in 10 liters of water. You should stop giving Thiovit during the growth of buds. All male plants that do not bloom or do not have petals should be removed from the land.
The top of the plant should be cut 8 to 10 inches if the planted seedlings continue to grow. After that, you have to keep one or two buds and cut down the rest of them. The plant should be kept as short as possible. This is called stopping method. It facilitates more stalks and flowers.
Insects and Diseases control
Marigold is resistant to many insects and pests. So it can be said that there is no remarkable infestation of insects in marigold. However, some diseases are seen such as wilt, stem rot, etc.
Marigold root rot disease: This disease is caused by a fungal attack. This disease is more common in waterlogged lands. The roots are rotted and the tree fell down and died.
Management: The land should be well-drained and irrigation should be stopped at that situation. Care should be taken so that no water accumulates at the base of the tree. Diseased plants must be uprooted and destroyed. If the infestation is high, Tilt or other approved fungicide should be sprayed.
Marigold stem rot disease: This disease is caused by fungal attack. At first water-soaked lesion appears on the stems. Later the spots aggregated and rot on the stem of the plant. The flow of water and food to the plant is disrupted, and the diseased plants wither and die.
Management: Flood irrigation should be avoided in the land to prevent the growth of fungus. Before planting seedlings in tubs or gardens, the soil should be getting good sunlight. If the infestation is high, Tilt or other approved fungicide should be sprayed.
Insects: There is no remarkable infestation of insects in marigold. Marigolds are resistant to many insects. Snails often infest marigolds. Snails should be controlled as soon as they are seen. Lime should be applied to the land to control the snails.
Flower production: Marigold flowers can be produced three times throughout the year.
If the size of the flower is large, you have to cut the flower with scissors leaving a little long stem. The flowers will stay fresh for a long time. Cold weather in the morning is good for collecting flowers (you have to finish the harvesting flowers before the sun rises) or you can harvest in the afternoon. The flowers will stay fresh for a long time after collection if the land is irrigated some days before collection. Flowers can be collected in 60 to 70 days after planting.
The yield of marigold depends on variety, planting distance, time, application of fertilizer, etc. With good care, it is possible to get a yield of about 4,500 to 7,000 kg per acre of African marigold and 3,000 to 5,000 kg of French marigold.