How to grow gerbera daisies (A complete guideline)
How to grow gerbera daisies: Gerbera is an important commercial flower from the Asteraceae family. This flower is a fast-growing perennial herb. The flower is named after the German environmentalist Trogot Gerber. When you go to any flower shop, you can easily see the colorful gerbera. The flower stays fresh in the vase for a long time. It is one of the top 10 cut flowers in the international flower trade. However, in this article, we’ll know about the complete guideline of growing gerbera from planting to harvesting. So, let’s go to the point.
- 0.1 Varieties of gerbera
- 0.2 Suitable Climate
- 0.3 Protective condition
- 0.4 Suitable Soil
- 0.5 Propagation
- 1 Step-by-step How to grow gerbera daisies
Varieties of gerbera
There are about 40 species under the genus Gerbera. Among these, the most cultivated genus is Gerbera jamesonii (Commonly known as Barberton daisy, gerbera daisy, and Transvaal daisy). Many varieties of Gerbera jamesonii have been developed through the hybridization method.
Gerbera is an environment resistant plant that means it can grow in almost all types of climates. However, in temperate region gerbera grows well in open space palisade, and in the tropical region, it grows well in greenhouses. They require full sun to maximize bloom.
During the winter gerberas are cultivated in the open field and in the summer it is cultivated in palisade. The cultivation cost in a controlled environment is higher but it is important to increase the quality and production of flowers and protect them from pests. However, in summer you should provide light shade (30%) for better flower production. The optimum daytime temperature for gerbera cultivation is 18-20oC and the night temperature is 10-12oC. It is true that gerbera produces flowers at high temperatures, but the quality of the flowers is not so good.
Well-drained, fertile loamy or sandy loamy soils are ideal for cultivating gerberas. The pH value of the soil should be between 5.5-6.0 (slightly acidic). Gerbera land needs to have a lot of organic manure. So, a moderate amount of dung manure, leaf manure, cocodust, etc. should be applied.
(A) By seed
Gerbera can be propagated through seeds. This is a simple method but the plant produced from seed does not retain all the qualities of the mother plant. The advantage of this method is that there is less possibility of disease and insect attack through seeds.
(B) Division of clumps
You can propagate gerbera by dividing the clamp of the mother plant. For this purpose, the well-established and fully grown plant should be selected from the field and divided into small sections with a sharp knife. Then the suckers (section) planted. Before planting the leaves and roots of the suckers should be lightly pruned.
The above two methods are not very useful for commercial cultivation. The tissue culture method is good for getting a large number of disease-free gerbera seedlings in a short time. For this, you have to select the right variety first. Then it is possible to produce a large number of seedlings by repeatedly sub-culturing the growing shoot tips, flower buds, leaves, etc. of the plant.
Step-by-step How to grow gerbera daisies
Now we’ll briefly discuss the process of growing gerbera. Find your planting zone and see instructions for this process below.
Preparation of Land
The land should be given an adequate amount of organic manure. Then the land should be prepared well by cultivating it several times in a horizontal and long way at a depth of 40-45 cm. As a result, all the organic fertilizers will mix well with the soil.
Preparation of Bed
The height of the bed will be 20 cm and the width 1.0-1.2 m. There should be a 50 cm drainage channel between the two beds so that water does not accumulate in the land. Since flowers are usually harvested in phases for a period of 2 years after planting, care has to be taken while preparing the land and beds.
Planting of suckers
After the preparation of the bed, the suckers should be planted at a distance of 50 cm from row to row and 40 cm from plant to plant prior by understanding the variety and the type of growth. The seedlings should be placed on the ground in such a way that the crown or central growing point of the seedlings is above the surface level. If the crown goes under the ground, there is a possibility of foot rot disease infection.
Gerberas can be planted all year round but seedlings should be planted early to get better flowers and higher yields.
Since the roots of gerbera penetrate deep, it is better to give flood irrigation instead of repeated sprinkler irrigation. Care should be taken the application of water so that waterlogging does not occur. Waterlogging in the gerbera fields accelerates soil-borne diseases. On the other hand, the lack of water in the soil causes wilting, in which the stalk of the flower becomes smaller. Soil clods should be broken down with a hoe after each irrigation in order to facilitate aeration into the soil.
Application of Fertilizer
Gerbera is a fast-growing flower crop. To ensure the growth of the plant and get maximum yield from the plant a moderate amount of fertilizer should be applied at regular intervals. Balanced fertilizer should be applied during new roots are started sprouting after planting.
You should apply the following fertilizer per hectare of land
- 10 tons of well-decomposed cow dung/compost
- 2 tons of cocodust
- 350 kg of urea
- 250 kg of TSP
- 300 kg of muriate of potash (MOP)
- 165 kg of gypsum
- 12 kg of boric acid and zinc oxide
Fertilizer except well-decomposed cow dung/compost and urea should be mixed well with the soil 7-10 days before planting. Half of the urea fertilizer should be applied 25 days after planting and the other half should be applied 45 days after planting at a small distance around the base of the plant. Irrigation should be given after the top dressing of urea fertilizer.
Note: 1 hectare equals 10,000 square meters; if you want to cultivate gerbera in one meter a small garden then what will be the amount of fertilizer. For example, for one meter of land, the amount of well-decomposed cow dung should be divided by 10,000. And the rest of them will be the same.
Disease and Insect Management
Root rot disease
The disease is caused by the attack of soil-borne fungus. The growth of the infected plant is hampered and eventually, the whole plant dries out. To reduce the disease seedlings should be planted after sterilization of the soil.
Note: You can see the article about soil sterilization
Base rot disease
This is also a soil-borne disease. The central part of the infected plant first turns black and then rots. Later the leaves and flowers die.
1. Good results are obtained by spraying Redomil or Dithane M-45 fungicide at the rate of 0.2% every 7-10 days interval.
2. The disease can also be controlled by spraying Topsin 0.05% at intervals of 7-10 days.
The disease is caused by the attack of two types of fungi. The infected plant appears to have been coated with white powder.
1. Good results are obtained by spraying Benomil 50 WP at the rate of 0.01%.
Spider/Mites are found in dry and warm climates. The growth of leaves and buds hinders severely by the attack of this insect. The flowers have no market value due to their unusual size and shape.
1. Affected leaves should be collected and burned early in the attack.
2. Spray any spider repellent like Vertimec or Omite 56 EC 1.5 ml per liter of water
Whiteflies cause severe damage by sucking the sap from different parts of the plant. This insect spreads viral disease.
1. Using adhesive yellow traps.
2. Soak 50 gm of half-broken neem seeds in 1 liter of water for 12 hours and spray the bottom of the leaves 2-3 times 8-10 days interval.
3. 10-15 days after planting the seedlings should be sprayed with 10 grams of Esatap 75 (SP) and Cumulus DF mixed in one liter of water every 10-12 days.
The flowers should be harvested when the outer two rows of disc floret of the fully grown flower in a parallel position with the peduncle. Flowers are collected by keeping the inflorescence as long as possible during cutting. It is best to pick up flowers obliquely in the morning or afternoon with a sharp knife. After cutting the flowers, the inflorescence should be dipped in one inch of water. Mix a little sugar and a few drops of lemon juice with water to keep the flowers fresh.
Yield varies from variety to variety. However, 20-25 flowers can be collected from each plant in a year.