how to grow flowers

How to Grow Flowers Garden: Best plans & ideas for beginners

A Complete Guideline on How to Grow Flowers: Flowers are the wonderful creation of God. They play a vital role in making nature so much beautiful that humans and animals love to live in nature. There are several species of flowers in the world. Among the various categories are seen.

Flowers are the reproductive units of a plant. If we see the parts of a flower carrying we will see four parts commonly. These are the sepal, petal, androecium, and gynoecium. The androecium is the male part that carries the pollen grains in the sacks of it. And gynoecium is the female part of the flower that initiates the pollination process. Fruit, seeds are produced after pollination. Pollination can be of two types;

  • Self-pollination: Self-pollination is the pollination process in which the androecium of one flower pollinates the gynoecium of the same flower or another flower of the same plant.  
  • Cross-pollination: Cross-pollination is the process in which the pollen grain of one plant pollinated the flower of other plants near to it or in distance. 

Types of flowers

Flowers can be of various types and colors. The color of the petals of a flower is the main attraction of its beauty.

Types of flowers on the basis of color

If we consider the gardening concept we can see some special categories of the flower. For example categories of flower based on their color.

White flowers

White-colored flowers have a vast range of species. These species include small flower bigger also. For gardening white flowers can be a great option. They will be visible at night dark also because of its bright white color. It has a very shiny appearance. For example heliotrope, scabiosa, white rose, Lilium, tulip, camellia, petunia, calla lily, hibiscus, dianthus, daisy, gerbera, jasmine, anemone, amaryllis, moonflower, primrose, begonia, trumpet flower, etc.

Yellow flowers

The flowers mentioned as white-colored flowers can be of yellow color also. The same species of a flower can have multiple colored flowers. So now it is very easy to remember the names of the flower. Except for those there are some other flowers that are yellow in color. For example calendula, sunflower, marigold, alamonda, Craspedia, Iris, coreopsis, day lily, and snapdragon, etc. yellow-colored flowers are favorite to the honey bees. They are easily attracted. So if the garden is mixed planted with flowers and fruits or vegetables yellow flowers can be helpful for attracting the insects. And these attracted insects will help in pollination of those fruits and vegetable plants.

Orange flowers

Orange colored flowers are very popular. People love this color of the flower. It looks very beautiful when blooming in a bunch in the garden. There are various flowers that are orange in color. For example marigold, bulbine, cosmos, ranunculus, gerbera, orange day lily, chrysanthemum, bird of paradise, etc. Orange is a classy color of the flower. So it costs a little high in the market place.

Red flowers

Red is the mostly seen color and mostly loved color by the grower or the owner. Red makes the garden arranged with beautiful decoration. The decorum seems to have lackings if there is no red-colored flower in the garden. There is a vast range of red flower plants in nature. For example, rose, poppy, salvia, dahlia, amaryllis, anemone, tulip, zinnia, calla lily, alstroemeria, chrysanthemum, gerbera, cockscomb, peony, dianthus, pentus, columbine, begonia, hibiscus, Ixora, football lily and many more examples are there.

Purple flowers

Purple is a color that is so wonderful to watch. In the garden, purple flowers create a phenomenal look in the garden. People prefer mostly this color of flower to have in their garden. There is a wide range of species that have a purple-colored flower. For example campanula, lavender, balloon flower, allium, monkshood, lily of the Nile, anemone, salvia, bell heather, aster, canterbury, columbine, crocus,  dianthus, and many more. Even violet flowers are cost-effective.

Blue Flowers

Blue flowers look like ornaments in the garden. They give such a shiny, sober, fresh feel in the garden. In the night they seem like dazzling stars in the sky. There is a variety of blue colored flowers in nature. But it is hard to find them. Among them some examples suitable for gardening are hydrangea, iris, empire blue, oxford blue, forget me not, geranium, gentians, brunnera, blue rose, clematis, cletoria, morning glory, harvestglories, etc. Blue flowers are mostly wild type. In the market place, they cost a little high.

Fig: Butterfly Pea

Green flowers

Green flowers are very elegant to watch. But these are not preferable in the garden. They just look like the ornamental leafy plants. No difference is visible sometimes between the flower and the leaf. Green flowers are not simply available in local places they are also mostly wild types like the blue-flowered plants. Very rare in nature. For example orchid, hellebores, hyperecium, calla lily, spider mum, etc. Green flowers are mostly found in Ireland. As it is a rare color in nature, the cost of this flower is also very high.

Black flowers

Black colored flowers are the rarest. Black colored flowers are also not adapted to all the weather conditions. The black flower grows only in a special environment, . Otherwise, black flowers can not stand the adverse condition. This is the main point why black flowers are rare. But there are some flower species suggested for gardening for example black rose, pansy, black dahlia, black tulip, and black calla lily. These are some popular choice of black flowers which can be grown in the garden.

The black rose is a very sophisticated flower. For growing this plant it is very important to maintain the preferred atmosphere by the grower in the garden.

Types of flowers on the basis of smell

Again on the basis of smell in the flower, flowers are divided into two categories. They are –

Scented flowers

Flowers those have a scent in them are called scented flower. This scent is very pleasant to smell. In the garden having scented flowers is a good idea. They are low to purchase. Scented flowers mainly bloom at night. In the night the whole surrounding of the house or the lobby gets mesmerizing.

The scent of the flowers is also good at attracting pollinating insects. So in a mixed garden scented flowers are also helpful in pollination. Scented flowers are mostly white in color. For example jasmine, night queen, heliotrope, amaryllis, lavender, gardenia, rose, marigold, camellia, tuberose, lilac, etc. Flowers are the most beautiful creation of God. Their fragrance announces its beauty.

Fig: Amaryllis

Non scented flowers

Non-scented flowers are of those categorical flowers that do not create any pleasure smell from them. They only have the floral beauty. Non scented flowers are preferred by some growers who do not like the smell of the flower or some people who have allergy from floral scents as well as from perfume. The perfume industry is largely dependent on the scented flowers.

The non-scented flowers are used for decoration. But some o the non scented flower has some medicinal properties. For example, the hibiscus is a glower of multiple task performers. It is largely used in medicine as well as in the cosmetic industry. Some examples of flowers are gladiolus, hibiscus, salvia, flox, poppy, cosmo, petunia, pansy, button flower, narium, bleeding heart, cletoria, etc.

How to grow flowers

The cultivation of flower plants is easy. Like other plants flower plants needs the same care and attention to create a healthy look.

Preparation of layout

For planting in the garden a layout can be prepared. If the land of gardening is large enough the layout will be so much helpful in designing the garden with flowers. The layout is not needed if the owner plans to make a flower garden in his balcony. That can be designed by visualizing the plants.

After making the layout, the garden site should be cleared. All the dust and garbage must be removed from the land to create a fresh atmosphere for the plants. Flower plants can be of herb, shrub, and tree type. All types of flower plants can be cultivated in the garden. But in the balcony garden tree type flower plants will be tuff to grow. As the plant will need space and height to grow long. Long growing plants should be planted in open space. So that they can have light and air as much as they need.

Garden plants should be planned according to layout design for example herbs can be grown in the middle side after them shrubs are cultivated. And at edges of the garden tree type flower plants should be cultivated. Again it can be reversely arranged which means trees in the middle of the garden then shrubs around it then herbs in the outside. On the other hand, only herbs can be chosen for decorating the garden. That means only one type of plant.

Prepare the flower garden

Now the procedures to prepare the garden to grow flowers are mentioned below:

Site selection

The flower garden must be in a bright sunny place. That means it requires a little higher altitude. If the place is not that higher enough it will log the water, and drainage of excess water will be poor. And the plants will face difficulty in their health condition. Drainage is very important in plant cultivation as well as moisture conditions.

Flower plants are delicate in nature so there should be a light preference as the plant wants. The maximum plant likes bright sunny weather. But that is not concrete. South facing garden is better for getting optimum sunlight. It is available in tropical regions. But in temperate region greenhouse is prepared for gardening and food production. Also, it should be taken care that the rainwater can not damage the plant. The site should be in such a place where rainfall is not that strong. Otherwise, the delicate plants will get destroyed before their establishment.

Soil preparation

Sandy loam soil is the best choice for flower plants. Sandy loam soil is coarse enough to allow the root to penetrate into the soil. Also, it has tremendous water holding capacity. This soil texture is very much unique to support the plants on it.

Plowing of soil

The herbaceous flower plants are shallow-rooted. Fibrous rooted plants do not enter in the deeper soil. So the surface of the soil should be well plowed for planting the herb flowers. It can be done by using plowing instruments like a garden tiller. You can buy the best garden tiller for better gardening. But before this, the land should be tilled and cleaned.

Weed minimization

Weed-free soil is the prerequisite of gardening. So it is very important to keep it in consideration. Weed plants always compete with the desired plant for light, water, nutrient, and space. So they uptake the nutrients of the desired plant and grow very fast. Due to this, it must be ensured that there is no weed around or in the garden soil. You can use a weed killer for this purpose.

Sterilization of soil

After ensuring this soil should be kept fallow for about 10 to 15 days under the bright sun. So that the microorganisms and there inoculums in the soil are exposed to the sun and die. It is essential to keep away the soil-borne diseases to the flower plants. Damping-off, wilt, root rot, etc are some soil-borne diseases of flower plants. For preventing this soil should be treated well before seed sowing. Captan, fervum, metalaxyl is well-trusted fungicides for soil treatment. You should know how to sterilize soil.

Killing the dormant weed

This exposure heat treatment of soil is also helpful in killing weeds naturally. Weeds have several years of dormant seeds in the deeper soil profile. By plowing the soil and turning it from up to down initiates those dormant to seeds to come up. They because of heat they get damaged or eaten by the birds around or attacked by fungus and nematodes.  

Fertilizing the soil

Soil supplies proper nutrients to plant. It is the primary source of the nutrient. That means before planting seeds the soil should be enriched with diverse macro and micronutrients. The soil should be in rest after placing the seeds. Reduced agitation is a must. Otherwise, the seed can get injured. Or the germination of seed can be hampered. In 10: 10: 10 ratio or in 4:4:4 ratio nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizer have to be applied in the soil. Fertilizing the soil should be done at least 15 days before seed sowing.

Soil preparation

Other macro and micronutrients like calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, etc. can be provided as per the wish of the grower. But the prime need is these three nutrients almost for every plant. Flowers aren’t exceptional. Care should be taken during the application of fertilizer. Fertilizer should be spread evenly into the soil. Otherwise, some plants will get more nutrients and some will get fewer nutrients. Balancing is very important.

Collecting seeds or seedlings

After the soil is well prepared it’s time to sow the seeds. The choice of flower plants to cultivate in the garden is made previously by the owner based on his plan. According to the plan seeds of the desired plant are collected from the shop of seeds, or from nurseries. You should buy pure live seed. The cost will depend on the flower’s choice. Some demanding seeds are expensive and some are not that much. Besides, you can buy seedlings of desired flowers from nurseries.

Soaking seeds into water

A day before sowing of the seeds should be soaked in the water for the softening of the seed coat. It secures the proper germination of the embryo.

Maintaining proper distance

Then maintaining proper distance seeds are sown as much plant the owner wants to have. If the proper spacing is not maintained the plant canopy will be dense to each other and it will accelerate the disease infection rate of the plants. So spacing should be maintained. Shrubs are too planted in 1 to 3-meter distance. Tree plants for about 10-meter distance because it will need more space to spread its root under the soil and the canopy over the soil. Herbs are to be planted 50 to 90 cm apart from each other whatever the species is spacing is important.

Application of water

After sowing the seeds spraying of water is a must ensure enough moisture condition availability for germination o the seed. After 20 to 25 days seedlings will be established and in 2 to 3 months plant will be ready to bloom.

Seedling care

Seedlings are very much delicate after germination. They are the newborn baby. So they need proper nourishment and love to get adapted to the new world.

Protection from the birds and other animals

Sprouted seeds need protection from the birds and the other small animals. Sprouted seeds are nutritious so some animals prefer to eat them as their food material. For better protection nets can be used to make a barricade around the seedlings.

Proper irrigation and drainage

Proper nourishment is not possible with dryness. Water the sprouts at least once in a day is obligatory. Or the seeds will go dry off and die. Obviously proper drainage condition must be checked or the plants will die also due to suffocation.

Pruning

After the seedlings are about 1 to 1.5 months old they can be pruned off from the tip to remove the apical dominance. Removal of apical dominance initiates profuse growth of lateral branches and also flower buds. In Shrubs, it is also applicable. But shrub needs regular pruning to grow more and more branches and have a bushy appearance. Trees also need regular pruning for better growth and development. If any discoloration is seen in the leaves or the twigs of the plant, nutrient availability should be checked. If found any lack of nutrients should be provided as per requirement.

Flower caring

After some months or after some year plants will produce flowers. The flowers are also to be taken care of. Regular water sprays on the bloomed and about to bloom flower is essential. A spray gun should be always placed in the garden with a full of water containers.

Flowers feel happy to have water sprinkle on them. They remain fresh for a longer time. Otherwise, it will fade away soon. Scented flowers plant should be planted opposite to the wind direction or opposite to the house facing. By this, the sweet fragrance of the flower will diffuse inside the house. Some flowers will fade away they are to be removed quickly from the plant or it will invite more insects on the plant.

Flowers are a storehouse of nectar. In the garden honey bee comes to collect nectar from the flower. Having honey bees and butterflies in the garden is a sign that the garden is happy, healthy, and beautiful.

Some common diseases of flower

Damping-off: It is a common disease occurring in germinating seedlings. It can be of two types pre-emergence damping-off and post-emergence damping off. It is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Pythium sp.  It destroys the plant in the baby stage. The plant dies because of the disease. The control measure is pre-sowing soil treatment. Soil treatment diminishes the pathogen from the soil. Also, soil drenching is very important. It helps the soil to get rid of this pathogen.

Grey mold: It is a disease in which grey molds are formed on flowers or leaves and make a grey colored faded appearance. Rose, dahlia, marigold are the most susceptible plant to this disease. It is caused by Botrytis sp. To control this copper soap fungicide can be sprayed on the plants. Also, green cure fungicide is very effective and eco friendly on this basis.

Fig: Grey mold in chrysanthemum

Powdery mildew: Oidium sp. Causes powdery mildew disease to flower plants. In winter when rainfall is not short this pathogen exposes. And creates powdery spore on the flower and leaves. Dahlia, marigold, salvia, and herbs are mostly infected with it. After infection the plant dry and ultimately dead. To control this watering is a great idea on the plant.

Leaf spot: leaf spot is very common in plants. As Alternaria, Cercospora, Curvularia these pathogens create brown leaf spots on leaves. In severe infection plants plant is blighted and dead  Copper-based fungicides are very effective in controlling leaf spot. Flower production comes at very lower rate due to the leaf spot infection. So it should be taken care of.

Training and pruning

Shrubs and trees mostly need training pruning practices. They are perennial plants. Regular trimming is their demand to have better air in the surrounding. As per the requirement of the owner size and shape of the plant can be manipulated. That is totally on the grower. For the decoration in the garden training and pruning can be included. For their better growth and development, training pruning is needed also for a better look training pruning is needed.

If the owner wants a plant to be in the dwarf shape he can conduct hard pruning on it on a regular basis. If the owner wants it to be very tall than he should stop the lateral growth. If the owner wants a ball-shaped or any other shaped crown he can trim the plant in that way. It is very simple. But a work of tireless patience. But a beautiful outcome demands a limitless passion for it. Otherwise, nothing is possible without hard work.

A flower garden is a place of beauty and peace. It ensures the great mental health of a man and his family members. Flowers of a different color are our mind soothing and the greenery of the garden is our eye soothing. It regulates our blood pressure by cooling our mental health. Also very good medicine for the depression patient. It circulates a spark of refreshment in our whole body.

In conclusion

After the tiring journey of the whole day, it is a blink of peace inside or outside the house. It is a blower of happiness to every single person. No one can deny the beauty of plants and flowers.

Abraham M. Johnson
 

Abraham is a professional gardener and his hobby is indoor and outdoor gardening! He has been gardening for the last 5 years and he loves to decorate the home by gardening as well. Based on his experience with different types of gardens; he is sharing his thought and opinion about various gardens care tips and tools so that a beginner can get started right away. Find him on twitter here. Happy reading!

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