Step-by-step how to grow fennel from seed
How to grow fennel from seed: Fennel is a popular spice, a perennial herb of the carrot family, is grown as an annual. Fennel fruit or seed is used in spices, betel spice, mouthwash, etc. Leaves and soft stems are used in making sauces, salads, and in the preparation of root ayurvedic medicine. Fennel is also used to make a variety of sweets and salty foods.
- 1 How to grow fennel from seed
- 1.1 Soil for fennel cultivation
- 1.2 Land preparation and fertilizer application
- 1.3 Care and irrigation system
- 1.4 Disease and insect control in fennel cultivation
- 1.5 Harvesting of fennel
The nutritional value of fennel
It contains 7.3 percent water, 9.5 percent protein, 10 percent fat, 16.5 percent fiber, 42.3 percent sugar, 13.4 percent minerals and 1040 IU (per 100 grams) of vitamin A.
Medicinal properties of fennel
Fennel has both medicinal and nutritional value. It is beneficial in various diseases including nervous weakness, cholera, cold and cough.
You can grow this plant in many areas of the U.S., including the Midwest, if planted early in the season and managed properly. Some notable varieties are;
Common fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a large, branching plant that can reach heights of up to 5 feet.
Florence fennel also called “anise” (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum) is smaller than common fennel, reaching only 2 to 3 feet in height.
How to grow fennel from seed
Soil for fennel cultivation
Sandy and sandy loam soils are best for fennel cultivation. However, it is better if the land is well drained a little higher.
Fennel cultivation season
Depending on your climate, seed may be sown in early spring, mid-spring, late summer and early fall.
Seed rate in fennel cultivation
If you sow seed scattered it may require 9-12 kg per hectare, row weaving may require 8-9 kg and nursery seedlings may require 3-4 kg of seed. You should be Soaking the seeds for a day or two before sowing will ensure better germination.
Land preparation and fertilizer application
Fennel cultivation land should be deeply well cultivated in 4-5 times. At the time of first cultivation, 10 tons of organic manure or farm manure per hectare should be given to the land. Before the last cultivation, 30 kg nitrogen, 40 kg phosphate and 20 kg potash fertilizer should be given as chemical fertilizer.
If there is a possibility of infestation of ants, termite etc., 25 kg endosulfan powder should be applied per hectare before sowing the seeds. If the land is low fertile, 30 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorus and 30 kg potash should be applied as the main fertilizer. Nitrogen should be applied at the rate of 30 kg each as top dressing 1 month and 2 months after sowing and light irrigation should be given immediately after the application of fertilizer.
Care and irrigation system
20-30 days after sowing, weeds should be removed by weeding, extra seedlings should be removed and the soil should be loosened at the beginning. If necessary, weeds should be cleaned by weeding two or three more times after 15-20 days. Irrigation should be given to the land considering the condition and quality of the soil. If necessary, light irrigation should be given for 15-20 consecutive days.
Disease and insect control in fennel cultivation
Insects such as aphids, army warm, beetle, gall midge etc. are attacked fennel plant. Powdery mildew, leaf spots etc. are common diseases of fennel.
Aphids in fennel cultivation
Adult and immature aphids absorb sap from leaves, flowers and young fruits, dripping honeydew, resulting in shooting mold disease. The attack of aphids can be reduced by changing the time of sowing and cultivating resistant varieties.
Army warm in fennel cultivation
Adult and immature army warm live in groups in the middle of the stems and petioles and suck the sap. Infected leaves and flowers wither and become inferior wrinkled, deformed fruits.
It is better to spray 0.2% Carbaryl or 0.2% Dimethoate or 0.1% Diazinone or 0.1% Phenitrothion or 0.2% Endosulfan for control of army warm.
Beetles in fennel cultivation
This insect destroys the complete and incomplete stage by eating fruits and seeds. Seeds are more damaged by these insects during storage.
Warehouse seeds should be smoked with 64 mg / cubic meter ethylene dibromide for 7 days to control the pest. Sun-dried seeds can be stored for 4-6 months by mixing Laskar powder or turmeric powder at the rate of 1-2 gm per kg of seed.
Powdery mildew disease of fennel
60-70 days after sowing, small triangular, high and low spots appear on the underside of mature leaves. Later in the area white type high and low spots are seen. Gradually the stems, inflorescences and fruits spread. Later, the leaves curl and dry out. In the early stages of attack, the fruit does not catch, the buds dry out and fall off. Infected flower buds turn yellow and dry out due to the attack of the second fungus and the buds fall off.
The disease can be controlled by spraying 0.1-0.2% difolite or 0.2-0.3% mancozeb or 0.04% phytolan in the affected field every 10-15 days interval. The disease is more prevalent in cloudy weather, so the above pesticides can be applied in that weather, or as a precaution, the above pesticides can be sprayed 45, 60 and 75 days after sowing.
Leaf spot disease of fennel
The disease is caused by a fungus that causes brown to black spots on the leaves of infected plants. Similar spots can be seen on stems, inflorescences and young fruits. Infected plants can be seen shining.
Infected fields can be sprayed with 0.1-0.2% difolite or 0.2-0.3% mancozeb or 0.04% phytolan after 10-15 days. The disease is more prevalent in cloudy weather, so the above pesticides can be applied in that weather or as a precaution the above pesticides can be sprayed 45, 60 and 75 days after sowing.
Harvesting of fennel
Fruits of fennel plants can be picked in 6-7 months. When the fruit will be yellowish in color, then it should cut the tree and bring it to the farm. It shouldn’t allow the fully ripe. Because, when it will be fully ripe in the field, the fruit will fall off and the quality of the seed may be poor. All flowers are not ripened at the same time. Therefore, if you can pick ripe fruits 4-5 times in 10-15 days interval, the yield will be higher and the quality of the crop will be better.
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