How to grow chrysanthemums: Chrysanthemums is one of the most popular seasonal flowers in the world. It is called chrysanthemum because it blooms during Christmas. In terms of popularity, it is the second most popular flower after the rose. It comes in different colors and sizes. Sometimes, chrysanthemums are as popular as roses in form and beauty. Chrysanthemum is the national flower of Japan. The flower can be cultivated in the yard, veranda, and roof of the house. Chrysanthemums are commonly used to decorate courtyards, verandas, roofs, etc. Japan and China are probably the original birthplaces of chrysanthemum. It is called the Autumn Queen for its variety of colors and shapes.
Climate and soil
Chrysanthemums prefer relatively cold weather and sunny places. Winter is the best time to cultivate this flower. Well-drained loam and sandy soils rich in organic matter are suitable for chrysanthemum cultivation. The pH of the soil should be 6.0-7.0.
Step-by-step how to grow chrysanthemums
Now we’ll know about the complete guideline of growing chrysanthemums. Find your planting zone and see instructions for this process below.
Chrysanthemums seedlings can be produced from seeds, suckers, and stem grafting. Seedlings from seeds do not produce good flowers and it takes many days to get flowers.
On the other hand, there is no such problem if you produce seedlings from suckers and stem grafting. However, seedlings are usually produced by grafting stems. One-year-old fresh strong stalks should be selected for grafting. 8-10 cm long stalks are cut obliquely and put in a bed or bucket to take root.
When flowering is over plants are cut down 15-20 cm above the ground. After a few days, some suckers come out from the base of the cut. When these suckers are 5-6 cm long, they are separated from the mother plant and planted in a shady seedbed or in a tub. At this time, necessary measures should be taken to protect the seedlings from rain and hot sun.
Planting of Seedling
Site selection/selection of suitable land
Cultivation of chrysanthemum flowers requires fertile light loam soil, elevated, dry, and easily drained land. Southside open land is especially suitable for chrysanthemum flower cultivation.
How to prepare the land?
It is necessary to mix an adequate amount of decomposed leaf manure, decomposed dung manure, bone meal, or superphosphate manure with the soil during the plowing of the land. The soil should be made loose and soft by the good cultivation of the land.
How to plant the suckers/seedlings?
The suitability of flowering can be enhanced by transplanting the seedlings in separate plots or tubs before planting for the last time in the specified mainland or in tubs. Winter is the best time to plant seedlings in the mainland or in tubs. Chrysanthemum should be planted at 30-25 cm intervals depending on the variety.
How to care for chrysanthemum?
Chrysanthemum absorbs large amounts of nutrients from the soil. That’s why the plants respond very well to organic and chemical nutrient-rich soils. It is necessary to apply a balanced amount of fertilizer in the land to get a good yield.
How much fertilizer should be applied?
Amount of fertilizer per hectare:
- 10 tons of well-decomposed cow dung manure/compost
- 400 kg urea
- 265 kg TSP
- 300 kg muriate of potash
- 165 kg gypsum
- 12 kg boric acid and zinc oxide
How to apply fertilizer?
Method of fertilizer application: Fertilizers except well-decomposed cow dung manure/compost and urea should be mixed well with the soil 10-10 days before planting. Half of the urea fertilizer should be applied 25-30 days after planting of sucker and the other half should be applied 45-50 days after planting of sucker with some distance around the base of the plant. The land should be irrigated after the top dressing of fertilizer as though it should be mixed with soil.
Application of water
Chrysanthemum seedlings should be planted in the afternoon. The soil at the base of the plant should be compacted by pressuring smoothly. Light irrigation should be given after planting the seedlings. Chrysanthemum plants can never tolerate much water. However, care must be taken as though much water does not accumulate at the base of the plant. Irrigation should be done regularly before and after planting the seedlings.
Removing of weeds
The soil at the base of the chrysanthemum plant in the garden and tub should be loosened and the weeds should be removed regularly.
Supporting the plants by a hard stick
To protect the plant from extra growth and stormy winds, a strong stick should be placed next to the plant and gently tied. Usually, the flowers of the chrysanthemum are larger than the stalks of the plant. So you have to places a hard stick from the base of the plant to the bud. If you have done this work the flower will not bow down.
You should place the sticks at once during the planting of seedlings. The selection of sticks will depend on the height of the chrysanthemum plant. Sticks should be placed a little away from the base of the plant. If you placed the sticks very near the plant then it can often damage the roots, and even the damaged root can cause disease of the plant.
A chrysanthemum plant can produce one or more flowers. You should start pruning from the middle of autumn if you want to produce more flowers. This should be done at a time when there is a hint of twigs coming out from the corners of the side leaves on the tree. The flowers are quick and good. If you want to get a big flower, you have to break the other buds and stalks by keeping the agar buds.
If the tip is thick: When the level of nitrogen fertilizer is high, the tip of the tree becomes thick and the flower does not bloom. In this case, the soil of the tub has to be dried and lime water has to be used from time to time.
How can you get big flowers?
Ways to get big flowers: The top of the tree should be cut off one month after planting. In this way, the plant will become bushy, not tall. Early flowering of seedlings should be removed immediately. To get a large flower, you have to apply the “disbudding” method which means you should leave the middle bud and cut off the two side buds. And if you want to get medium size flowers, the middle bud should be removed.
Disease and insect control
The main Diseases and insects of Chrysanthemum are Powdery mildew, Aphids, and Plant suckers.
Powdery mildew disease
The leaves of the affected plant turn gray. White powder can be seen on the leaves.
Tilt 250 EC should be mixed in 2 ml or 2 g of Thiovit per liter of water and sprayed every 7-10 days interval.
Aphids are the main harmful insects of flowers. Aphids are dark green, purple or black in color. Both juveniles and adults insects suck the sap of a new plant or flower and cause severe damage to the growth and yield of the plant.
This insect can be controlled by applying Novacron (0.1%) or Rugger (1%).
It is a very small insect. This gray color insect cannot be seen with the naked eye. It absorbs the sap of ripe leaves and flowers. The leaves and flowers dry out and if the infestation is high the whole plant dry out.
To control this insect, 2 ml Malathion should be mixed in 1 liter of water and sprayed every 8-10 days.
Harvesting of flowers
It is very essential to harvest the flowers at the right time. If you picked the flowers in bud condition they won’t bloom. Flowers with long stems should be cut very early in the morning or in the afternoon. Flowers should be cut when the outer petals are completely open and the middle petals have started to bloom.
Yield varies from variety to variety. However, each plant produces an average of 30-40 flowers per year.