Basic methods of how to fertilize vegetable garden
How to fertilize vegetable garden
Manure may be defined as the materials of organic origin which on application to the soil can improve soil health and contains one or more essential plant nutrients. E.g; cow dung mustard, oil cake, etc.
Importance of manuring
- They supply a considerable amount of nutrients necessary for plant growth and development
- Improve soil physical structure and texture
- Add organic matter to the soil to improve the water holding capacity of the soil
- They increase the aeration of the soil
- Increase the microbial activity
Types of manure
- Farmyard manure
- Green manure
Any chemical substances which are used to supply one or more essential plant nutrients are known as fertilizer. E.g. TSP, MP, Urea, etc.
Importance of fertilizer
- Through the increase of yield of the use of fertilizer decrease the cost of production.
- It requires less equipment and to supply per kg of materials than manure.
- It contains a higher amount of available plant nutrient
- It can be available in any amount
Application of fertilizer/method of fertilizer application
Application of fertilizer in solid form broadcasting
- Localized placement
Application of fertilizer in liquid form
- Starter solution
- Foliar application or spray fertilization
- Direct application to the soil
- Application through irrigation water
Application to fertilizers in solid form
In broadcasting the fertilizer is spread over the entire soil area to be treated with the main objectives of distributing the whole quantity of fertilizer evenly and uniformly. This may be done before the land is brought immediately before planting or while the crop is standing. Broadcasting has two types;
- Broadcasting at planting
- Top dressing
In this method, fertilizers are placed in the soil irrespective of the position of seed, seedling or growing plants before sowing or after sowing. it is of the following types;
- Plough sole placement
- Deep placement
- Subsoil placement
This method refers to the application of fertilizers into the soil close to the seed or plant. The fertilizers are placed along with or close to the seed or plants in bands or pockets so that the young plants can get nutrients as per their requirements. Localized placement reduced the fixation of phosphorus and potassium. it can be divided into;
Contact placement or combined drilling drill placement
- Till placement
- Row placement
- Spot placement
- Basin placement
Application of fertilizers in liquid form
Liquid form of fertilizers are applied by the following materials.
A solution of fertilizer generally consisting of N: P2O5:K2O in the ratio of 1:2:1 or 1:1:2 are applied to the base of the vegetable seedlings after transplanting instead of only watering. It helps rapid establishment and quick early growth of seedlings.
Spraying of suitable fertilizer solution having a low concentration on leaves of growing plants is called foliar application. It has been well established that all plant nutrients are absorbed through leaves of plants and the absorption is remarkably rapid.
Direct application to the soil
liquid fertilizer such as anhydrous ammonia (a liquid under high pressure up to 200 lbs per square inch or more) and nitrogen solution are directly applied to the soil with the special injecting equipment. Plant injury or wastage of ammonia is very little If the material is applied about four inches below the seed.
Application through irrigation water
Fertilizers which are easily soluble in water are allowed to dissolve in the irrigation water and applied to the soil irrigation. The nutrients are thus carried into the soil in solution.